It was in March 2017 that I first wrote about Miss Bessie Carley. She grew up in Badingham and had a varied nursing career in several English institutions before war broke out. After the declaration of war, she worked at the First Eastern in Cambridge and the 55th General in France, becoming decorated with both the Royal Red Cross (2nd Class) for service at home and, two years later, the Royal Red Cross (1st Class), for service abroad. To receive both was, and I quote, ‘pretty impressive’!
Bessie has intrigued me ever since I ‘discovered’ her, but it hasn’t been until recently that I’ve been able to sit down and research her life in a little more detail. And I am so glad that I did. What follows is the story so far, but I am sure there is more to tell. I would love to hear more in the comments.
Bessie is nothing short of an inspiration. A remarkable woman, through hard work and determination, Bessie rose right up to Matron by the age of 38. She probably nursed at least one of her parents before training formally, and went on to be ‘intensely useful’ for the rest of her life, even, according to the local newspaper, working under bombardment.[i] The legacy she leaves is one of which her family (and her ‘place’, Badingham) can be very proud.
Two things happened earlier this year that reawakened my interest in Bessie after three years of spending most of my free time with my two consecutive babies. Firstly, a twitter contact was tweeting about nursing records that Bessie most likely appeared in – and it turned out that she did.[ii] Now, having a copy, I know that those records are full of moving additional details beyond her war service, including letters from her family (more on that later). I unwittingly received the documents almost one hundred years to the day since Bessie’s death.
Secondly, and almost concurrently, I received an email from a gentleman who had letters written by Bessie in his possession. Bessie had nursed Chris Payne’s grandfather, Sergeant Charlie Payne, in his final days, and had written to his family on more than one occasion. Again, these letters give us additional insight into Bessie’s life.
The next task seemed to be whether we could unite all of these records with Bessie’s modern-day family, and, potentially, find a photograph of her to put a face to her name.
I am delighted to say that we were able to do just that, and so much more. Bessie’s Great Nephew has kindly allowed me to share images of some family archives. So, without further ado, here she is:
Please note these photographs are shared here with the permission of Bessie’s family. Please do not re-use them without speaking to them first; I am happy to pass on your details to them.
Bessie’s early life
Bessie was the seventh child of eleven registered by her parents John Carley and Jane Adeline Carley (nee Mills; her first names have, on occasion, been noted as Jeanie and Adelaide).[iii] Bessie was born at the Red House in Badingham, the family farm, which amounted to 172 acres in 1881.[iv] Three elder sisters and an elder brother were living at the time of her birth; two more brothers had sadly died young.[v] Three additional brothers and a sister would arrive after Bessie came along and before the next census.[vi]
Seven of the surviving nine Carley children were still at the Red House in 1891 with their parents and two servants, one of whom was 16-year-old Elizabeth Baldry, my Great Great Grandmother.[vii] Eldest sister Ellen was a teacher (still at home) while Bessie’s eldest living brother was boarding at Framlingham College with the sons of many other local farmers.[viii] Janet, also missing, was staying with her aunt and uncle at their grocer’s shop on the High Street in Hemel Hempstead.[ix]
It was to be Bessie’s father’s last census. He died at the Red House just a few months later, on 29 January 1892, aged 53.[x] John had for many years sat on the Board of Guardians for Hoxne and ‘endeared himself to a large circle of friends by his genial nature and sterling worth’. He was important to the parish and valuable to the community, and as such his funeral received several column inches in the East Anglian Daily Times.[xi]
Interestingly for Bessie’s story, this meant that she grew up with her father involved in the treatment of the poor locally. There are other relevant clues in her father’s obituary too. We know, for example, that according to the newspaper, he had ‘for many years [been in] delicate health’ and had ‘fallen at last a victim to the prevailing epidemic’.[xii] It seems most likely that the epidemic in question was the ‘Russian’ or ‘Asiatic’ Flu pandemic, which was widely reported in the local news at the time. It came in several waves, the third occurring from approximately November 1891-June 1892.[xiii]
‘Notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather, and the prevailing sickness (which prevented all the female members of his family attending the funeral) a large number of relatives and friends assembled to pay the last tribute of respect to the memory of an old friend’.[xiv] Did Bessie herself succumb? Her brother attended, so I am not sure her absence can be entirely explained by the family isolating. At the time of writing, the parallels with today’s funerals without family members in attendance are striking.
By the age of 11, therefore, Bessie had experienced the influence of a pandemic on her own family. Potentially she had played a part in nursing her father, or at least observed others doing so. And there was more to come.
On New Year’s Day, 1899, her mother sadly died too, again at the family home. ‘The deceased lady had been in somewhat delicate health for some time past, but it was not until a few days before death that she was compelled to take to her bed’.[xv] Bessie and her eight surviving siblings now found themselves without either parent, and this time around, at the age of 18, we might imagine Bessie had done more of the nursing, especially as at least one of her elder sisters had already left home.
The family at the Red House was much reduced by 1901.[xvi] It would be a very unusual circumstance to find nine siblings happily sharing a property after their parents’ death, and it was no different for the Carley family. As one might expect for the time, Richard, the eldest son, was enumerated as the head of the household, farming the land. The sister immediately before Bessie, Annie, was acting as the housekeeper, and the youngest child, Robert, was still at home, being just ten.
Where had the other children gone? Ellen was already married and had taken her younger sister, Janet, as Governess for her children in Middlesex.[xvii] Agnes, too, was a Governess, this time for the Brown family in Melton.[xviii] The boys, John and Samuel, being younger than Bessie and still of school age, were boarding at Beccles College.[xix] They would later strike out for Australia.[xx] As for Bessie, her nursing career had begun…
Bessie’s early career
Perhaps being a governess or housekeeper like her sisters wasn’t for her and nursing presented itself as a good alternative option for a single woman in want of an occupation. Perhaps she had known she wanted to be a nurse for some time. Either way, the 1901 census finds Bessie as the youngest nurse (just 20) living in at The Warneford Hospital.[xxi] The hospital opened in 1832 and closed in 1993, and records are deposited at Warwickshire County Record Office.[xxii] It was at Warneford that Bessie completed her training. She left home at a time when more and more hospitals were establishing training schools, and probably attended lectures as well as learning ‘on the job’. It may be that her work on the wards covered her training, bed and board for her first years in the profession. This photograph shows nurses on the Hitcham Ward at the hospital in the 1900s, and there are several others on the site for interested readers, although generally from after Bessie’s time.
The first image in this blog likely coincides with Bessie’s time at Warneford. The photographer was local to Leamington Spa at the turn of the century.[xxiii]
From Warneford, Bessie worked in at least two other institutions. In 1911, the census placed her as a ‘fully trained sick nurse’ living at the Nurses’ Home on Brook Street, Ipswich.[xxiv] It is unclear under what logic the staff were recorded, but Bessie was the first nurse in the list. By 1911 she had more than a decade’s experience under her belt. At the time, the East Suffolk and Ipswich Hospital was at Anglesea Road. Interestingly, staff records are among those held at Suffolk Record Office for the period 1881-1951 – something for another day![xxv]
First World War – home service
According to the local newspaper, before war broke out, Bessie was in charge at Dovercourt Nursing Home.[xxvi] Her service records, which amount to 77 pages, give details of her wartime career as well as providing touching connections to her family back home in Badingham, where her eldest brother and next of kin, Richard Carley, still lived at Red House Farm.[xxvii]
Her records say that Bessie joined the Territorial Force Nursing Service (TFNS) on 10 August, 1914, just days after Great Britain declared war on Germany. At the time she was a Sister-in-Charge and lived at the ‘Dovercourt Branch of the Ipswich Nurses Home’. There were several hospitals in Dovercourt during the First World War. It is unclear for now at precisely which one Bessie worked. The Borough of Harwich already had an Isolation Hospital and Cottage Hospital before the war, and almost immediately after war was declared it had several more including Dovercourt Military Hospital and The Women’s Suffrage Hospital. For more details of local hospitals, please see here.
After joining the TFNS, Bessie initially worked at the First Eastern General Hospital at Cambridge, incidentally where my Great Grandfather (and more than 70,000 others) received treatment. The site is now home to the University Library.
Bessie remained at the hospital for more than two years. Her first annual report in August 1915 described her as methodical, hardworking and punctual with a good deal of initiative; ‘her ward has a good tone’. All essential qualities in a Ward Sister. A year later, the same Matron, Annie Macdonald, described her as ‘self-reliant…instructs the Red Cross Workers well and has a good influence on the ward’. It seems she was able to keep her ward – and the men and staff on it – in good order.
There is a fascinating video about the hospital on the University of Cambridge website, narrated by Dr Sarah Baylis. I think I may have spotted Bessie herself in some of the stills within the video; see what you think!
At its peak, the hospital had 1700 beds, a cinema, post office and other recreational facilities for those well enough to bowl or box. It was, in essence, a small town within a city, but one known for its open-air wards and curative use of direct sunlight, saline baths and massage therapy (Bessie was certainly trained in the latter). Having been mobilised right at the beginning, Bessie would have seen the hospital mushroom in size over the course of ten weeks.
While she was working in Cambridge, her younger brother Samuel signed up for war service from New South Wales, Australia, where he was farming with their brother John (Jack) at Mountain Creek.[xxviii] He would later be posted to France. Her sister Annie, perhaps inspired by Bessie, volunteered with the Red Cross and took on general duties at Easton Park Hospital for a couple of years, just a few miles south of Badingham. The 27-bedroom mansion on the Easton Park estate had been turned into a Red Cross Hospital under the care of Mary (Dowager) Duchess of Hamilton.
Although the First Eastern Hospital was in England, conditions during those first years were not easy. Being open to the elements brought challenges from storms, floods and pests, and the number of wounded being admitted was often overwhelming. It was difficult to blackout the wards and the fear of Zeppelin raids was real. Although commercially-produced postcards were posed showing the staff and patients looking relaxed, they disguised the true nature of nursing under canvas with patients often in great pain and the constant rotation of new admissions. Trained staff were in short supply, and Bessie would have worked on her feet for long hours, probably collapsing into bed exhausted at the end of each shift, ready to do it all again a few hours later.
The Sketch features several high-society women who selflessly toiled in hospitals during the First World War. Bessie, of course, was not a society lady. She had reached her rank not through her position in the prevailing class structure but through hard slog: scrubbing and caring and cleaning and instructing. While she had been born the daughter of a farmer (and employer) rather than an agricultural labourer, I am sure she was no stranger to hard work, and she was deserving of the honour.
This photograph of Bessie, supplied by her Great Nephew, may well have been taken at the First Eastern:
First World War – service abroad
Shortly after receiving her RRC (2nd Class), Bessie was promoted from Sister to Assistant Matron of the Eastern General Hospital (No. 55 General) for Active Service overseas.[xxxi] The request was agreed and confirmed in May 1917 with her appointment dating officially from 30 April. According to a memo in her record, the hospital was to have 1040 beds. Bessie was among many staff transferred from the Cambridge hospital to France, leaving the base in Blighty ‘acutely short-staffed’.[xxxii]
No. 55 General was a Base Hospital at Wimereux, a coastal town three miles north of Boulogne. With today’s transport, it is about 90 minutes from Ypres (to the east) and Arras (to the south-east). During the First World War, Wimereux was a critical hospital centre, and it is while Bessie was there that she nursed Chris Payne’s grandfather, Charlie.
The Wellcome Library has digitised twelve images of No. 55 on its website and has allowed me to share some here on a CC BY NC license.[xxxiii] Full details and the rest of the photos are available at this link.
On 17 July 1917, a couple of months after she arrived, Bessie’s Report Form (part of her service record) says that she had good health, good conduct and excellent character; ‘capable, energetic, hardworking. Has plenty of common-sense and is a great help in my work’ remarked her Matron, still Annie Macdonald.
At home, Bessie’s elder sister Annie, who still lived at the Red House, Badingham, died on 29 August.[xxxiv]She was only about a year older than Bessie. Both Bessie and Samuel were noted as being on active service in the funeral report published in the Framlingham Weekly News, Bessie being ‘unable to reach home in time for the funeral’ from ‘a base hospital in France’.[xxxv]
There must be a great deal more to learn about No. 55 (or ‘the 55th’). Bessie’s service was unbroken, and we know from her record that in January 1919 she was recommended for promotion once again. Her Matron, still Annie Macdonald, who had worked with Bessie from October 1915, first as Sister and later as Assistant Matron, had this to say when recommending her for promotion:
‘She is a well-trained woman interested in all branches of nursing, a good administrator and teacher. She quickly sees important points and her judgement can be relied on. Very even-tempered, tactful, energetic and hardworking, her one desire is to be useful. I find her the greatest help in my work.’
In response, the Commanding Officer, Lt Col. Rodink, noted ‘I thoroughly agree with all Matron has said’! Col. Thurston concurred, and the Matron-in-Chief, Emma McCarthy,[xxxvi] described her as ‘A most capable woman, kind, conscientious, reliable and a loyal supporter…came to France 30 April 17’.
It was during her last months at No. 55 that Bessie nursed Charlie Payne, otherwise Sergeant C. F. Payne 235435 of the 2/5 West Ridings.[xxxvii] Charlie was admitted to the hospital dangerously ill with broncho-pneumonia on 6 February 1919.[xxxviii] The hospital was in the midst of the ‘Spanish Flu’ pandemic that swept around the globe in waves from 1918-1920, ultimately killing more people than the war itself. Now a trained nurse under pandemic conditions, it must have brought back pangs of the influenza that most likely killed her father. (Writing about previous pandemics in the midst of another is not lost on me; I do wonder what Bessie might have thought about the response to Covid-19.)
It is a particular privilege to read letters penned in a subject’s own hand. Through a handwritten message, there is a tangible connection to the past and the people that existed in it. For many that have left us no such link exists because it has not survived (or never existed in the first place), but with Bessie, we are lucky. Bessie wrote to Sergeant Payne’s wife twice, and these letters have been treasured by the Payne family ever since, first by Charlie’s wife Ida – who stored them in a black Victorian hatbox – and later by Chris’ father and finally Chris himself.
According to Bessie’s first letter, of 9 February, Charlie’s condition on admission was ‘most serious…we thought some of it might be due to the journey during this severe weather and that quilts[xxxix] of warmth and treatment would perhaps make a great difference but I regret to say so far he has failed to respond to any treatment’.
She goes on, ‘his breathing still remains as laboured and…his pulse is very feeble. I am so sorry to have to send you this sad report realising all too well the anxious time you will have been passing through ever since he came out here…I can assure you that everything possible will be done for his comfort and towards his recovery – but the next week or so will be most critical and until that is past I dare not give you any definite hope.’
Sadly, Bessie was to write again ten days later with the worst news. ‘It is indeed with sadness that I write to tell you in spite of all possible care and skill your poor husband got gradually weaker and weaker until he passed into his well earned rest at 4.45 pm today. I am sorry to say that I have no message or last wish for you. He slept the greater part of the time and when awake his breathing was too distressed for us to worry him or encourage him to talk’.
The last paragraphs of the letter deal with how any of his ‘treasures’ will be returned (‘we are compelled to send these through official channels’) and the statement that ‘when the first great sorrow is over you will always have the proud satisfaction of knowing that he made the Supreme Sacrifice for his country and as one of the Great War Heroes his name will ever remain sacred’.
I find myself wondering just how many times Bessie wrote to bereaved families and how she felt writing that last. There was not much Bessie would not have seen in a wartime hospital. She was surrounded by the sick and injured, dealing with death every day. Her letters come across to me as very professional. She would have been schooled to be so and was, after all, operating within a highly regimented and hierarchical nursing environment. Her letters are also enduringly honest. She does not sugarcoat or skirt around there being ‘no message or last wish’, but, ultimately, her letters are kind and, I think, genuinely sympathetic and caring.
My Mum, herself a farmer’s daughter and life-long nurse, once told me to be ‘firm but kind’. Bessie seems to embody that sentiment in these letters. She writes the truth, with no truck for embellishment, but in a way that hopefully would become a lasting comfort to his widow and the four young sons he left behind in England.
In his emails to me, Chris describes how he discovered the letters, along with some from his grandfather written earlier, among his family’s archives. He believes Charlie’s wife Ida must have found them of value because she always kept hold of them. Chris is writing about his grandfather Charlie on his website and in a forthcoming book.
Please contact Chris through his website is you have any queries about the Payne family.
After Bessie’s war service
Following her recommendation, Bessie’s career might have progressed even further. However, her war was nearly over, and she came home on leave in July 1919. While back, she needed treatment for varicose veins and had an operation on the 21st of that month at the Queen Alexandra Military Hospital. It may be the case that prolonged standing during her duties was part of the reason that Bessie’s condition developed this far: a physical response to the constant hard work of being a nurse. The Medical Board reported that her condition predated her service (as far back as 1902) but answered ‘Yes’ to active service conditions having aggravated it.
Her file includes several letters written by Bessie to the Matron-in-Chief, Miss Riddell, in 1919. She seems to have been keen to get back to work as soon as she was passed fit for service again on 9 October, 1919. She wrote to Miss Riddell on that same day to say that she would await her orders, wishing to remain in the Force as long as her service was required. She had missed the original date for the second Medical Board owing to a railway strike. I rather suspect she was frustrated by this as she was champing at the bit to get back to work after six weeks’ sick leave convalescing in Badingham.
Bessie was demobilised from the TFNS on 14 October, 1919, days after the Medical Board report about surgery on her legs, although the reason given was a reduction in staffing. She had unbroken service of more than five years. There was no vacancy at any territorial unit as there was a significant reduction in staffing taking place.
Miss Riddell had already given Bessie a glowing reference to copy to prospective employers in June that year, ready for her to send wherever she wished to apply after the war. The evidence suggests that Bessie was already looking at civil posts in Spring 1919, knowing her period of war service was coming to an end. In her letter requesting a recommendation, Bessie noted that she had been advised to ‘write to the College of Nursing and also to my old training school re a future appointment as [I] shall have to continue nursing’.
Bessie wasn’t, as we have seen, a ‘society’ nurse. For her, nursing was not something to pick up and put down again after wartime, being able to fall back on an independent income. Instead, it was a vocation and a career, a salary and profession. Perhaps she might even have said nursing was her life’s purpose.
When writing to Miss Riddell, she noted that she had answered an advertisement to a post as Assistant Matron at Isleworth Infirmary. She said in a letter that she would ‘very much like this post but feel my application is too quaint – with no testimonials, photograph or anything’. She had apparently been assured that she could be released early from service rather than waiting for demobilisation if she ‘succeeded in getting anything nice’. She asked for advice ‘if you are not too frantically busy’ and wondered whether Dame Sidney Browne (Matron-in-Chief of the TFNS and later the first President of the College of Nursing) liked a personal letter ‘stating we have given her name for a reference?’
The gist of Miss Riddell’s reference is similar to statements already quoted, stressing Bessie’s good judgement, hard work and energy.
‘She is of the greatest assistance as Assistant Matron, and has been recommended for promotion to a higher rank. She is a reliable and loyal co-worker and maintains discipline. Miss Carley was awarded the Royal Red Cross, 2nd Class, in February 1917, for work in her Home Unit, and the Royal Red Cross, 1st Class, in June 1919, for excellent work and valuable service in France. She is a valuable Member of this Service.’
Sadly, not so very long after peace was declared, on 26 April 1920, Bessie died at the age of just 38, a similar age to her sister Annie, who had died in 1917. Knowing that she worked at the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital and Streatham Nursing Home after the war, it might have been possible that her untimely death was caused by the 1918 ‘Spanish Flu’ pandemic, just as Charlie Payne’s probably was, but the records show otherwise.
A letter in her file, written on 22 May within the TFNS, says that she died from a cerebral haemorrhage; ‘a record has been made of the cheerful and willing service this member rendered to her Country’.
But it is the letter written shortly after Bessie’s death from her elder sister, Janet, that tugs at the heartstrings the most. I include it here in full, taken from the pages of Bessie’s service record.
‘Dear Miss Riddell,
Thank you for your very kind letter of sympathy. I think my dear sister’s life was one of intense usefulness – then she was so unselfish, so bright and so inspiring! Her loss leaves – for me – a blank of very great loneliness. Sometimes I feel it would perhaps have been among her wishes – to pass straight on from work here, to the wider work beyond.
With renewed thanks, very sincerely yours,
Janet had also written to the authorities a week earlier, bearing the news of his sister’s sudden death at Guy’s Hospital. She said that she died from a cerebral haemorrhage caused by a cerebral tumour that was found to be forming. At the time of her letter, Bessie had received the RRC (2nd Class), but the 1st Class was still due to her, and Janet enquired about other medals that may not yet have been issued, viz; the Victory, Allies and Territorial medals.
The Framlingham Weekly News ran an article following Bessie’s death entitled ‘Badingham Family’s Sorrow. Death of Miss Bessie Carley at the Zenith of her career’.[xl]
The piece tells us a little more about her ‘splendid war nursing career’ and recounts that she had recently been appointed Matron at the Streatham Hill Nursing Home. It was there that she had suddenly been taken ill on a Sunday evening, after which she had been taken to Guy’s Hospital where she was seen by ‘a Harley Street Specialist’.
‘While on duty in France Miss Carley was frequently in the danger zone and was in one of the hospitals at the time of their bombardment by the enemy. She escaped uninjured while the victims of the enemy’s wrath lay around her, but she suffered for a considerable time from shock. After being demobilised in Autumn last she joined the staff of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, and just prior to commencing her new duties at Streatham early in April she spent a few days’ holiday at home’.[xli]
The article goes on to detail the attendees at her funeral, among whom was Miss Annie Macdonald, her wartime Matron, who by then was Matron of the Suffolk Convalescent Home. There are no details about the bombardment and how it affected Bessie’s mental and physical health in her service record, but perhaps somebody reading can tell us more about what happened at No. 55 General Hospital.
Bessie now lies under a CWGC headstone in Badingham churchyard. Just over 100 years have passed since her funeral, and I am glad to have brought some more of her story to light for future researchers; I know I am by no means the only one to have become interested in her story (and indeed those of her colleagues).
Having nursed thousands of patients and instructed many a trainee, Bessie must have left her mark on a very many lives. I wonder whether, when she was writing her letters to soldiers’ widows, she ever thought that she might one day be considered to be among the ‘Great War Heroes’ of which she wrote? I suspect not. My humble opinion is that she believed she was doing her duty by being useful, and her role was to be so ‘unselfish, bright and inspiring’.
History and readers can judge, but having delved into her records, I would say that Bessie was no less a hero than anybody else working bravely in those hospitals, and a hero of whom Badingham can be proud to lay claim.
[i] Framlingham Weekly News. Saturday, 1 May 1920. p2.
[ii] War Office. WO 399/10280: Carley, Bessie. 1914-1920. WO 399 – War Office: Directorate of Army Medical Services and Territorial Force: Nursing Service Records, First World War. National Archives, Kew. I regularly refer back to this key record set when I refer to her ‘service record’ or ‘file’.
[iii] Most frequently, these variations occur in local newspapers. GRO and census records tend to be under ‘Jane Adeline’.
[iv] 1881 Census, England and Wales. Badingham, Suffolk. RG 11, ED 2, Piece 1858, Page 1.
[v] By GRO entries: John Carley (1875-1876) and Samuel Green Carley (1876-1880), both names were reused for later sons. Please contact me for further references.
[vi] Happy to share these details but I have not referenced all births and deaths of family members here.
[vii] 1891 Census, England and Wales. Badingham, Suffolk. RG 12, ED 2, Piece 1461, Page 1.
[viii] 1891 Census, England and Wales. Framlingham, Suffolk. RG 12, ED Framlingham College, Piece 1479, Page 7.
[ix] 1891 Census, England and Wales. Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire. RG 12, ED 3, Piece 1124, Page 1.
[x] Framlingham Weekly News. Saturday, 6 February 1892. p4.
[xi] East Anglian Daily Times. Monday, 8 February 1892. p5.
[xiii] Opinions differ on the number of waves. John’s death certificate has not yet been ordered to confirm this cause of death so we are relying on the newspaper here. Ideally, his death certificate should be ordered for clarity.
[xiv] See 11.
[xv] Framlingham Weekly News. Saturday, 7 January 1899. p4.
[xvi] 1901 Census, England and Wales. Badingham, Suffolk. RG 13, ED 2, Piece 1767, Page 11.
[xvii] 1901 Census, England and Wales. Finchley, Middlesex. RG 13, ED 6, Piece 1234, Page 10.
[xviii] 1901 Census, England and Wales. Melton, Suffolk. RG 13, ED 7, Piece 1785, Page 1.
[xix] 1901 Census, England and Wales. Beccles, Suffolk. RG 13, ED The College, Piece 1799, Page 2.
[xx] Australia, WWI Service Records. Carley, Samuel Green. 1914-1920. SN 6481. Available online: ancestry.co.uk
[xxi] 1901 Census, England and Wales. Leamington Priors, Warwickshire. RG13, ED The Warneford Hospital, Piece 2933, Page 1.
[xxii] See Hospital Records Database, available online: https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/hospitalrecords/details.asp?id=726&searchdatabase.x=0&searchdatabase.y=0&hospital=warneford&town=
[xxiv] 1911 Census, England and Wales. Ipswich, Suffolk. RG 14, ED 15, Piece 10813, Page 1. [Note, this record is not indexed on Ancestry. You can browse to it or search for Bessie on TheGenealogist instead.]
[xxv] See Hospital Records Database, available online: https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/hospitalrecords/details.asp?id=569&hospital=ipswich&town=&searchdatabase.x=0&searchdatabase.y=0
[xxvi] Framlingham Weekly News. Saturday, 1 May 1920. p2.
[xxvii] War Office. WO 399/10280: Carley, Bessie. 1914-1920. WO 399 – War Office: Directorate of Army Medical Services and Territorial Force: Nursing Service Records, First World War. National Archives, Kew.
[xxviii] Australia, WWI Service Records. Carley, Samuel Green. 1914-1920. SN 6481. Available online: ancestry.co.uk
[xxix] Framlingham Weekly News. Saturday, 10 March 1917. p4.
[xxx] It should be noted that what the Framlingham Weekly News published cannot always be backed up. Although the gist of the reporting is correct, the paper is liable to change the spelling of names or alter minor details, either introducing a variant/error, or perhaps reporting one that was passed to them or something that in the end might not have happened. An example is refering to Bessie as being attached to Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Nursing Service rather than the TNFS. As always with newspapers, read with a pinch of salt!
[xxxi] War Office. WO 399/10280: Carley, Bessie. 1914-1920. WO 399 – War Office: Directorate of Army Medical Services and Territorial Force: Nursing Service Records, First World War. National Archives, Kew.
[xxxii] University of Cambridge. From the Front to the Backs: Story of the First Eastern Hospital. 01 July 2014. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/from-the-front-to-the-backs-story-of-the-first-eastern-hospital
[xxxiii] Army Medical Services Museum, Keogh Barracks, digitised by Wellcome Library; 12 photographs of 55 General Hospital, British Expeditionary Force, at Wimereux, France, 1915. RAMC/801/22/11/13. Available online: https://wellcomelibrary.org/item/b18746810#?c=0&m=0&s=0&cv=10&z=-0.0556%2C-0.2211%2C1.1111%2C1.1088
[xxxiv] Again, a death certificate should be ordered here. There is no clue as to the cause of Annie’s death in the local newspaper or note about whether it was sudden or otherwise. We know that she worked as a VAD at Easton only until 1916, but not why she left.
[xxxv] Framlingham Weekly News. Saturday, 8 September 1917. p4.
[xxxvi] Australian Dictionary of Biography. McCarthy, Dame Emma Maud (1859-1949) by Perditta M. McCarthy. Originally published 1986. http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/mccarthy-dame-emma-maud-7306
[xxxvii] Bessie herself uses a ‘g’ in ‘Sergeant’ rather than a ‘j’. I have followed her example.
[xxxix] ‘quilts’ remains the most likely transcription of this word to date, but Bessie’s handwriting is not always easy to decipher!
[xl] Framlingham Weekly News. Saturday, 1 May 1920. p2.